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精彩的表演
2013年12月03日 16:27 来源:中学外语教与学 作者:杨绛 字号

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  【英文标题】A Spectacular Performance Tr.by Daniel Ngai

  【作者简介】杨绛(1911-),作家、翻译家、外国文学研究学者。原名杨季康,江苏无锡人,生于北京。1932年在苏州东吴大学毕业,获文学学士学位,继而考入清华大学研究院外文系,1935年获文学学士学位;同年与钱钟书结婚,婚后不久共赴英国牛津大学留学;1937年转入法国巴黎大学深造。后因第二次世界大战爆发,提早于1938年偕夫婿回国。回国后先后任教于上海震旦女子文理学院外文系及清华大学西语系。自1953年起调进北京大学文学研究所(后改属中国社会科学院)外国文学组(后改为外国文学研究所)任研究员,一直任职至今。后40年代开始创作剧本,作品包括《称心如意》(1944)、《弄真成假》(1945)、《风絮》(1947)等,前两者曾被搬上舞台。译作则有《1939年以来英国散文作品》(1948)以及西班牙文学作品《小癞子》(1951)、《堂吉诃德》(1978)等。散文集《干校六记》(1981),曾被译成英、法、日、俄四种外语;另有《将饮茶》于1987年出版。小说集有《倒影集》(1981)、《洗澡》(1988)等。学术论文集有《春泥集》(1979)、《关于小说》(1986)等。1986年获西班牙驻华大使代表西班牙国王及政府颁授“智慧国王阿方索十世大十字勋章”,以表扬其翻译《小癞子》与《堂吉诃德》的贡献;1989年《干校六记》获中国作家协会主办的“新时期全国优秀散文(集)奖”,并在获奖作品中名列第一。

  I do not like acting,nor am I good at acting.Though I was onceon the grand stage of the Fortune Theatre,I still did not act.

  [2]It was on the occasion when Comrade He Qifang and other"Gangsters"were denounced.Mocun and I were among the accessories.Who the director was,what the performance was,etc-I have entirelyforgotten.What I still remember was that the atmosphere was verytense and I was extremely tired.Sitting side by side with Mocunbelow the stage with my head down,I was just trying to get somesleep,and paid no attention to what was happening on or belowthe stage no matter whether it was the self-criticism by theaccused or the cursing by the audience (only cursing,no beat-ing-up).Suddenly,somebody howled,"Yang Jikang,we'll put you upon the stage if you go on dozing!"Hurriedly I opened my eyesand jerked up my head.There was a bitter taste in my mouth andI knew that was due to trepidation.But a moment later,I dozedoff again.Anyway,it was unavoidable that I would be summonedonto the stage.

  [3]The pair of us were called one after another to go onto thestage.Once we were up there,we had to wear tall paper hats.I hadlearned the trick,that is,I took care to wear that hat in sucha way that the angle between the hat and the horizonlal was keptas small as possible.In this way an apparent bow of the head waseffected.If we wore the hat vertically,we would have to bend atthe waist by ninely degrees,otherwise people would shout,"Loweryour head!Lower your head!"Should the accessories not lowertheir heads,they would cause trouble to the principals.Of course,tricks like this were only applicable to"minor monsters andfreaks"who attracted little attention.I pressed the hat down overmy forehead,making sure that it would not drop off and it cameright down over my eyes.Standing like this at the verge of thestage,I imitated a horse-dozing while standing.Nobody knew thatI was imitating a horse-sleeping while playing my bit part.Before the meeting was over,I was summoned to the microphoneto declare my name and status,and then to receive a bombardmentof abuse,which brought the denunciation session to an end.When I was seated below the stage,my worst fear was that I shouldbe summoned onto the stage;however,having come up on the stage,I felt that the ordeal was nothing special.Standing on the stageas a minor partner in crime,I did not and have to act,whereas ifI sat below the stage and pretended to be a member of therevolutionary masses,I would find myself in trouble unless Iexpressed the same indignation as they towards the "criminals".To tell the truth,I would rather be lashed out at than lashout at others.For to lash out at others was acting by oneselfwhereas to be lashed out at was watching others act consciouslyor unconsciously-acting out their feelings towards me;to witnessan unintended revelation of their true feelings was oftenintensely interesting.

  [4]However,what I could never have expected was that I should,inspite of myself,play the leading role in a most dramatic farce.

  [5]In the final chapter of the Six Chapters from My Life"Downunder"I mentioned this denunciation session specially arranged for me.

  The masses questioned me:"Who was it that tipped Qian Zhongshuoff?."

  "It was me,"answered I.

  "Who was it that put up a small-character poster with the aid ofa flashlight?"

  It was me,"said I,"-the idea was to provide clues to help youcomrades invertigate the case".

  An uproar of excoriation broke out,with one voice saying,"Who'syour'comrade'?"

  At that,I simply stopped addressing them as"comrades",and switchedto"you".

  [6]Clever husbands and wivcs always kept some distance betweenthem so that they could claim to be independent of each otherin time of trouble instead of implicating each other.I did theopposite,swearing that I knew everything Qian Zhongshu thoughtand did.At that time,people-including myself-were seething withindignation.Somebody passed me a brass gong and a padded mallet,ordering me to strike the gong.I was just at that moment fumingwith anger,without being able to vent it.So there and then I tookover the gong and the mallet,and struck it a couple of times forall I was worth,just to let off steam.That triggered an enormousfurore,and a chaotic hubbub ensued among the audience,who criedthat I should be taken to the Division compound to be paradedabout.A middle-aged veteran cadre dug out a mouldy board-I didnot know where he got it from-that was black from being longsoaked in dirty water.They tied a string to it,and ordered meto hang it around my neck.The board was slippery,and hung heavyaround my neck.So,wearing a tall hat,and holding up a brassgong,I was escorted by a throng of people to walk round thecrowded canteen first,and then to"parade"round all the majorpaths in the compound.It was their order that I should,afterevery few steps,strike the gong twice and shout:"I'm a bourgeoisintellectual!"That was not difficult at all!I said to myself.Don't you think you can cow me!Besides,aren't all intellectuals"bourgeois intellectuals"?It would do me no harm to shout that.I was temporarily playing the role of the Town Crier in Lazarillode Tormes.What was different was that I was at once a non-personand a crier who proclaimed news about herself.Although therewas nobody who took pictures of me,I,nevertheless,was able toape the Monkey King and let my soul leave my body so that I couldwatch the strange sight I made from high above in the sky.Icould also see that,following me,there were a sorry troop of"monster and freaks"all wearing tall hats.How spectacular thatfarce was!Even to this day,in retrospect,I can still see in mymind's eye that funny procession,and at the head of that processionwas none other than myself.

  [7]Probably the broad masses could not forget how I made anexhibition of myself either,so,the next day,when they saw me,they simply could not help laughing.There were two of them whoput on long faces to lecture me:whoever dares to go against thewill of the people will have her crown broken.I freely admittedthat it was my fault to argue with the masses,but I could notturn black to white.They were after all not altogether unreasonable,for they no longer pressed me to plead guilty to that groundlesscharge concerning Mocun.I said to myself:you can parade me butyou cannot subdue me.I just could not help echoing Sancho Panza:"Although I was disgracefully paraded,I am still a respectableperson!"

  我不爱表演,也不善表演,虽然有一次登上了吉祥大戏院的大舞台,我仍然没有表演。

  [2]那次是何其芳同志等“黑帮”挨斗,我们夫妇在陪斗之列。谁是导演,演出什么戏,我全忘了,只记得气氛很紧张,我却困倦异常。我和默存并坐在台下,我低着头只顾瞌睡。台上的检讨和台下的呵骂(只是呵骂,并未动武),我都置若罔闻。忽有人大喝:“杨季康,你再打瞌睡就揪你上台!”我忙睁目抬头,觉得嘴里发苦,知道是心上慌张。可是一会儿我又瞌睡了,反正揪上台是难免的。

  [3]我们夫妇先后都给点名叫上舞台。登台就有高帽子戴。我学得诀窍,注意把帽子和地平线的角度尽量缩小,形成自然低头式。如果垂直戴帽,就得把身子弯成90度的直角才行,否则群众会高喊“低头!低头!”;陪斗的不低头,还会殃及主犯。当然这种诀窍,只有不受注意的“小牛鬼蛇神”才能应用。我把帽子往额上一按,紧紧扣住,不使掉落,眉眼都罩在帽子里。我就站在舞台边上,学马那样站着睡觉。谁也不知我这个跑龙套的正在学马睡觉。散场前我给人提名叫到麦克风前,自报姓名,自报身份,挨一顿混骂,就算了事。当初坐在台下,唯恐上台;上了台也就不过如此。我站在台下陪斗,不必表演;如果坐在台下,想要充当革命群众,除非我对“犯人”也像他们有同样的愤怒才行,不然我就难了。说老实话,我觉得与其骂人,宁可挨骂。因为骂人是自我表演,挨骂是看人家有意识或无意识地表演——表演对我的心意,而无意中流露的真情,往往是很耐人寻味的。

  [4]可是我意想不到,竟不由自主,演了一出精彩的闹剧,充当了剧里的主角。

  [5]《干校六记》的末一章里,提到这场专为我开的斗争会。

  群众审问我:“给钱钟书通风报信的是谁?”

  我说:“是我。”

  “打着手电贴小字报的是谁?”

  我说:“是我——为的是提供线索,让同志们据实调查。”

  台下一片怒斥声。有人说:“谁是你的‘同志’!”

  我就干脆不称“同志”,改称“你们”。

  [6]聪明的夫妇彼此间总留些空隙,以便划清界线,免得互相牵累。我却一口担保,钱钟书的事我都知道。当时群情激愤——包括我自己。有人递来一面铜锣和一个槌子,命我打锣。我正是火气冲天,没个发泄处;当下接过铜锣和槌子,下死劲大敲几下,聊以泄怒。这可翻了天了。台下闹成一片,要驱我到学部大院去游街。一位中年老干部不知从哪里找来一块污水浸霉发黑的木板,络上绳子,叫我挂在颈上。木板是滑腻腻的,挂在脖子上很沉。我戴着高帽,举着铜锣,给群众押着先到稠人广众的食堂去绕一周,然后又在院内各条大道上“游街”。他们命我走几步就打两下锣,叫一声“我是资产阶级知识分子!”我想这有何难,就难倒了我?况且知识分子不都是“资产阶级知识分子”吗?叫又何妨!我暂时充当了《小癞子》里“叫喊消息的报子”;不同的是,我既是罪人,又自报消息。当时虽然没人照相摄入镜头,我却能学孙悟空让“元神”跳在半空中,观看自己那副怪模样,背后还跟着七长八短一队戴高帽子的“牛鬼蛇神”。那场闹剧实在是精彩极了,至今回忆,想像中还能见到那个滑稽的队伍,而我是那个队伍的首领!

  [7]群众大概也忘不了我出的“洋相”,第二天见了我直想笑。有两人板起脸来训我:谁胆敢抗拒群众,叫他碰个头破血流。我很爽气大度,一口承认抗拒群众是我不好,可是我不能将无作有。他们倒还通情达理,并不再强逼我承认默存那桩“莫须有”的罪名。我心想,你们能逼我“游街”,却不能叫我屈服。我忍不住要模仿桑丘·潘沙的腔吻说:“我虽然‘游街’出丑,我仍然是个体面的人!”

  原著简介 原文所谓“精彩的表演”,指的其实是文革时期在一个戏院舞台上进行的一场批斗大会。作者夫妇二人与无数知识分子同一命运,被打成“牛鬼蛇神”而饱受煎熬。但“革命群众”的百般凌辱,在作者身上不但没有收到预期的打压效果,反而见证了妻子在患难之中挺身维护丈夫的气概,和表现出知识分子那种“威武不能屈”的风骨。本文原载于《将饮茶》一书;英译转载自香港中文大学翻译研究中心(网址:http://www.renditions.org)出版的《译丛》半年刊。

  译者 魏元良,早年曾任教于上海复旦大学英语系(1962-1979)。1979年移居香港,先于香港管理专业协会任职首席翻译暨传译员,继而于1983年起在香港理工学院任教翻译。1990年在香港中文大学取得翻译硕士学位。1994年起于岭南学院翻译系任教,直至1998年退休移民加拿大温哥华。

  Notes 注释

  原文用语大致可分为以下三大类:一、法庭聆讯;二、文革;三、舞台。先说法庭聆讯用语。“犯人”有“主犯”和“从犯”之分,例如第三段说“陪斗的不低头,还会殃及主犯”;按原文所谓“陪斗的”,英译作"accessories"(见第二段),一译"partner in crime"(见第三段),其实按英语本义即“从犯”的意思。至于“主犯”则译"principals"(见第三段)。由于批斗大会以戏院的舞台为场地,所以作者在第二段末说“揪上台是难免的”;“揪上台”英译作"summonedonto the stage";按summon一词是法律用语,意思是“传召(某人)出庭”,用在这里也就点明了“批斗大会”所带有的公审意味。原文第六段说聪明的夫妇懂得如何避免“互相牵累”,英译是"implicateeach other";按implicate一词一般指牵连于罪行中,例如:'Heclaims that the evidence has been made up to implicate him inthe robbery.'〔他声称指证他曾参与抢劫的证据是凭空捏造的,目的是把他牵连在内。〕(Cambridge International Dictionary ofEnglish,1995)。末段作者提及革命群众不再强逼她承认她丈夫那桩“‘莫须有’的罪名”;“认罪”英译是"plead guilty"(“不认罪”就是"plead not guilty");至于“‘莫须有’的罪名”,英译作"groundless charge",按groundless解作 'not based on anygood reason'(The Concise Oxford Dictionary Tenth Edition,1999),也就是“毫无根据”的意思;又例如说“毫无根据的谣言”,就可以英译作"groundless rumours";“毫无根据的指控”就可以说"groundless allegations"。

  接着说文革用语。译文第二段首先以"denounced"一词翻译“挨斗”,按“批斗”是政治术语,而denounce本义是"criticize stronglyand publicly"〔公开猛烈抨击〕(Cambridge InternationalDictionary of English,1995),这里是引申用法;第五段的“斗争会”,也就译作"denunciation session"。按session一词既可作会议解,例如:The UN Security Council met in emergency session todiscuss the crisis.〔联合国安全理事会召开了紧急会议讨论当前危机。〕(参考词典同上);也可解作"period of time or meetingarranged for a particular activity"〔为进行某活动而安排的时间或聚会〕(参考词典同上),例如:photo session〔照相(通常指“合照”)时间〕;training session〔培训班〕;上述"denunciation session"指的正是这类集会。与denunciation本义相近的词在本文中还有excoriation(an uproar of excoriation)(见原文第五段“一片怒斥声”句),同样是“谴责”或“训斥”的意思。至于其他文革用语,第三段里的“牛鬼蛇神”,是骂人的话,英语译作"monsters and freaks",其中monster一词除了一般解作“怪物”之外——例如传说中的the Loch Ness monster〔内斯湖水怪〕——还可用以泛指cruel or evil person“恶人”;至于思想行为或外貌方面视为异于常人者,英语则可以用freaks一词概括之。同一段里“革命群众”英译是"the revolutionary masses",按mass一词作定语用时要用单数形式,例如mass meeting〔群众集会〕,mass education〔群众教育〕,mass media〔大众传播媒介〕等;用以指“劳动阶层”时,则要用"the masses"这样的复数形式,并且与定冠词the连用。第五段里的“小字报”,英译作"small-character poster",相对于“大字报”(一般英译作"big-character poster"),照字面翻译而已,值得注意的是汉语以字(character)为语言单位,翻成“small-word或big-wordposter”就不对了,因为word指的是“词”,而“词”指的是由一个或以上的“字”(character)组成的单位。既然是一场“精彩的表演”,自然离不开与表演有关的用语。第三段英译有"playing my bit part"这个说法,按play one's part意即“扮演自己的角色”,而bit part则作"a small part in a play or film"解,也就是“(戏剧或电影中的)小脚色”,相对于第四段里的"play the leading role"(原文:“充当……主角”)这个说法。第三段里说的“(有意识或无意识地)表演”,荚译作"act(consciously or unconsciously)",“表演”也就等于“演戏”;但act是个不及物动词(intransitive verb),要说明表演的是甚么,就要跟out连用,即如同一段里说的"acting outtheir feelings towards me"(原文:“表演对我的心意”)。至于作者在其中充当主角的一场“闹剧”(见第四段),荚译是"farce",按farce一词的本义是“滑稽戏”,但也常作比喻的用法,CollinsCobuild English Dictionary,1995就有以下一个示例:"Theelections have been reduced to a farce.."〔选举已变成一场闹剧。〕其实,现实生活中荒诞不经的事例也多的是。

  谭柏山 注

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